Thursday, 2 July 2020

10:69 Good Night


King of Sleep


Good Night was written by John for Julian Lennon, probably during May/June 1968*. You could call it part of John's sleep trilogy with I'm Only Sleeping and I'm So Tired, or a bookend with Good Morning, Good Morning. Either way sleep was a reoccurring theme in Lennon's work – appropriate for some one once dubbed “the laziest man in England”.

The rehearsal tracks on 50th Anniversary reveal Lennon wrote the song using the fingerpicking pattern Donovan taught him in Rishikesh (ticket 59) – making this a brother-song to Julia and Prudence (and Warm Gun).This guitar version with John, Paul and George adding complex vocal harmonies somewhere between 'Because' and 'barbershop quartet' (Take 10 - 0:26) was abandoned* leaving Ringo to rehearse with piano accompaniment from George Martin* in preparation for the orchestral backing (Take 22).


For the second time on a Ringo track the band attempted (then rejected) a spoken intro. Yellow Submarine kicked off with “And we will march to free the day to see them gathered there, from Land O’Groats to John O’Green, from Stepney to Utrecht, to see a yellow submarine, we love it!”. Here Ringo improvises lines like “Put all those toys away. Yes, Daddy will sing a song for you!” or “Cover yourself up, Charlie*. Pull those covers up and off you go to dreamland!”

The finished record has George Martin's fingerprints all over it but it's possible that some of the most 'Martin' moments originated with John. The wonderful instrumental interlude (1:50) is rather baroque in style and the only non-diatonic moment in the song (ticket 28). But the chord movement is clearly there when John is accompanying Ringo on the guitar (Take 10 – 1:32) and less clear when George is on the piano (Take 22 – 2:26). And the backing vocals recorded by the Mike Sammes Singers are well on their way to being 'overlush' in the hands (mouths) of John, Paul and George. None of this disproves 'Big George' having his finger in the pie but we have to credit John with being fully involved, as were the others. It's heart-warming to hear the whole band coaching Ringo as he become the third Beatles to record a 'solo track'*.

Ditching the piano to play celesta (2:14) George arranged the song for a string section (12 violins, 3 violas, 3 cellos, 1 double bass) 8 singers, 3 flutes, a clarinet, a french horn, a vibraphone and a harp. Sappy or not, it's a beautiful arrangement and totally right for the song*.


Hey Jools, Please Go To Bed


Everything great about this song hinges on it being an 'occasional' song (Ticket 66) - in this case a lullaby. Beyond entertainment or passive listening an occasional song serves a purpose – a national anthem, a birthday song, a football team chant, learning your times-tables. How 'good' it is depends to a large extent on how well it serves that purpose. This song is designed to lull a little loved one to sleep and John makes lyrical and melodic choices that might be bad for your average pop song but are perfect here*.

Lyrically it's incredibly simple. John uses only 30 different words (Ticket 23) and they are all one syllable*. Perfect for a song written for a five year old child.

Small children love repetition. We have the same phrase in lines 2 and 4 (good night, sleep tight) and a wholesale repeat of verse 2 after the instrumental section (Ticket 67). There's also repetition via parallel lyrics (Ticket 24) dream sweet dreams for me / for you and the lovely rhyming concept of sun/moon - Now the moon begins to shine (v1) and Now the sun turns out his light (v2). All this repetition is very comforting.

Simplicity defines the structure too. The only distinct section is a verse with a refrain (the term 'chorus' seems a bit grand for 'dream sweet dreams...' and the title is in the other section). For analysis sake we'll call the verse A and the refrain B. The brief instrumental interlude is a variation on the B section, and so is the intro/outro (ticket 4).


Tune out


The modest vocal range of less than an octave (ticket 40) is another thing that marks it out as a 'children's song'.

The A section finds Lennon at his most melodic, though he doesn't leap around as athletically as McCartney, using 3rds, 4ths and 5ths. The B section is typically horizontal using two notes in the first phrase (dream sweet dreams for me) and only one in the second (dream sweet dreams for you). But the lush chords make it sound clever because every note is supported (doubled) by rich chords – major sevens and slash chords (D7/G) implying 11th and 13ths.

Far more important though is the shape of the melody. The melody feels so wonderfully light and 'sing-song' because it constantly goes up and down and sticks to the same lazy 1 / +3 / +1 / +3 rhythm. Notice the rhythmic similarity between close / your eyes / and I'll /close mine and dream / sweet dreams / for me.

There are three subtle contrasts between the A and B sections that prevent things becoming monotonous. First, as already mentioned, the range in the A section is a 6th (C - A) but only a semitone in the B (F# - G). Second, the melodies move in the opposite direction. Up-down-up-down-up-down-up in the A section and down-up-down-up-down in the B. Finally, the vocal rhythm is broken up on lines 2 and 4 of the A section (good night, sleep tight) by having the chords change on every word (ticket 36) instead of two words per chord in the rest of the song.

That said, many things that make a great Beatles song are missing here – the only out of key chords (ticket 28) are the G7 and A7 implied in the instrumental section. In fact there's very little chord movement at all – a short jump from G to Bm7 followed by a walk back down to Am7 and G is about as daring as it gets. There's a descant (ticket 58) at 0:55 but the backing vocals are in the background, smothered in strings. The whole effect is a soothing comfort blanket of sound with the opening and closing string melody rocking you to sleep. The only 'drama' is the ascending scales in the 'solo' but even that section ends with the cellos drifting down into the land of nod. In short there is no drama because drama is not what you need in a lullaby.

John (and the team) show such restraint in this recording and to me that's what makes it such a successful song in it's own right.

The wonderful thing about writing an occasional song is that the competition is so limited (Christmas songs aside). So even your poor attempt at a bar mitzvah, pancake day, university graduation or coming out song is probably going to be in the All Time Top 20.

I mean how many great rock lullabies* can you name?

Footnotes

Probably during May/June 1968*
The song is unlikely to predate Rishikesh as Lennon is using the fingerpicking technique learned in India and it wasn't demoed at Esher in May, so it was probably written afterwards.

Abandoned
Also abandoned was a crazy-sounding octave-higher guitar effect achieved by double-tracking the guitar part at half-speed (Good Night Take 10).

Piano played by George Martin
Of the three suspects – the pianist is clearly not John. The rehearsal tapes (Take 22) reveal he's in the control room using the talkback mic. George and Paul are in the studio with Ringo but seem to be there for moral support and click track duties. George Martin is also on the 'production floor' and the piano playing is both accomplished and similar to the string parts in a way that suggests he's fleshing out the arrangement. In short Paul would play more like a piano player, this person is playing like an arranger/accompanist – so George gets my vote.

Cover yourself up, Charlie
I'm not the first person to wonder what Charles Manson would have made of getting a name check on the White Album.

The third Beatles to record a 'solo track'
Paul had recorded Yesterday, without the others and George, Within You Without You. John would complete the set with Julia, coached through his performance by Paul in the control room.

Totally right for the song
As is Giles Martin's remix which sparkles, gives the arrangement a kick at 1:05 and 1:34 and removes the nasty thump from Ringo's whispered outro (2:53).

John makes lyrical and melodic choices [that] are perfect
Certainly more effectively than Paul's screamer of a lullaby Golden Slumbers written six months later!

One syllable
Ringo says 'everybody' in the coda but that's a spoken ad-lib rather than a part of the song.

Rock lullabies
Though it's NOT a lullaby I'm convinced that Queen's We Will Rock You was inspired by the Czech lullaby Little Jesus, Sweetly Sleep aka The Rocking Carol translated by Percy Dearmer. 

Ticket 66: Write An Occasional Song

Tuesday, 23 June 2020

Golden Ticket: Embrace Your Mistakes (Ticket 72)



Every artist needs fresh inspiration and sometimes mistakes can be a source of new sounds and ideas. Now, more than ever, musicians and producers have the tools to scrub every error from a recording but the end result can be flat, dehumanised and boring. Whether we screw up when the tape is rolling or mess up in rehearsal and then decide to keep the results, sometimes throwing a spanner in the works is the smart thing to do.

Or at least leaving the spanner where you dropped it.

Mistakes can make the listener feel they are really THERE or that the vibe is laid back or 'real' and not cleaning up your tracks is a great way to achieve this. Keeping count-ins, or even flying them in from other takes: I Saw Her Standing There, Taxman, Revolution 1, or catching snippets of conversation: Revolution 1 (0:00), Level With Yourself (0:53), Little Wonder (0:39). It's the equivalent of professionally lighting your 'no make up selfie'.

Keeping mistakes and retakes (e.g. the start of Bob Dylan's 115th Dream) help to humanise the artist; doubly so if they end up swearing in frustration: Hey Jude (2:58), Louie Louie (0:53), Good Riddance (0:00).

Vocals entering early is another common 'keeper'. Robert Plant comes in a whole four bars early on the second verse of Stairway To Heaven (1:32)* and James Blunt's premature arrival in You're Beautiful (0:23) is so obvious it warranted it's own parody.*

Singers sometimes struggle to get the words out and that stuttering can be serendipitous if your song is about barely containable teenage rage (My Generation) or accepting your failings (You're Only Human – 3:19).

Mistakes in the recording process itself can be useful. Both Revolution 1 (3:23) and Let Me Roll It (4:22) have extra beats caused by bad tape editing. Flying In a Blue Dream opens with other-worldly voices (0:02) – the result of picking up radio interference during recording. My own cover of River of Suffering catches the sound of a police car passing outside the studio (3:09).

The Right Time For Mistakes


To conclude – mistakes should be embraced when you're looking for fresh inspiration, want to bring the listener closer, humanise the artist, or just communicate a sense of fun and not taking yourself too seriously. If the nature of the mistake reflects the subject material of the song that's even better. And who knows? They may even advance your career.

When Ella Fitzgerald performed Mack the Knife in Germany for a live album, she forgot the lyrics to one of the many verses. Undaunted, she started freestyling lyrics (1:55, 2:50, 3:44, 4:00) throwing in a killer Louis Armstrong impersonation along the way (3:16). That performance won her, not one but, two Grammys*.



Revolution 1 – The Beatles (0:00, 3:23)
Level With Yourself - David Bazan (0:53)
Little Wonder - David Bowie (0:39)
Bob Dylan's 115th Dream – Bob Dylan (0:00)
Louie Louie – The Kingsmen (0:53)
Good Riddance (Time Of Your Life) – Green Day (0:00)
My Generation – The Who (0:05, 0:16, 0:30, 0:36, 0:41, 0:45, 1:20, 1:25, 1:58, 2:04).
You're Only Human (Second Wind) – Billy Joel (3:19)
Let Me Roll It - Paul McCartney and Wings (4:22)
Flying In a Blue Dream – Joe Satriani (0:02)
The River of Suffering – Matt Blick (3:09)

For an expanded playlist for this songwriting tip – go here

See also


Footnotes

Second verse of Stairway To Heaven
This is far from obvious but compare the chord sequences on 'verse 1' (0:52) and 'verse 2' (1:32) it's clear that Plant sings 'chorus 1' (1:19) once but Page plays it twice. Plant then sings verse 2 over one chorus progression and one verse progression then runs out of lyrics, leaving Page an extra four bars to fill in with some nifty fingerpicking. This 'mistake' would have been clearly obvious to all involved at once the reason it remained is – it's kind of cool!

Warranted it's own parody
You're Pitiful - "Weird Al" Yankovic (0:12) mercilessly mocks Blunt's entrance. In a similar way, someone on Sting's version of Shadows In The Rain (0:00) pays homage to bassist Joe Swift on Fingertips - Part 2 by Stevie Wonder (2:22) by repeated asking what key they're playing in.

Two Grammys
Ella Fitzgerald won Best Female Vocal Performance (Single) and Best Female Vocal Performance (Album) for Mack The Knife at the1960 Grammy Awards.

Monday, 8 June 2020

Under The Influence: Elliott Smith


At what age did you realise you wanted to become a musician?
Probably five, as soon as I heard The White Album. It was pretty much my inspiration, that and AC/DC.
Elliott Smith: NME (2000)

My friends and I were just starting to teach ourselves guitar in 1980. I was 11 and really into Beatles songs like Julia and Sexy Sadie— cool, kaleidoscopic chord changes. I was totally immersed in trying to figure it all out, and it was slowly happening when some madman gunned down the guide. At first, kids at school acted like it was a hoax. It didn’t seem real at the time, and to be honest, I rarely think of John Lennon as dead. There’s too much life in his music to think of him as gone. For some reason when I think of him now, I usually picture him the way he looked and sounded during the 'hairy and scary' phase, around the time of Abbey Road. Definitely on his own trip. It’s neat when you’re a kid to see people who aren’t scared to change.

My folks were Beatles fans and supposedly played Sgt. Pepper’s for me before I was born. In junior high I thought that A Day in the Life was probably my favourite song ever. Of course, now I have many, many favourite songs, but a lot of them are still Lennon songs. For example:

I’m Only Sleeping

Most songs that bring up wanting to be left alone in some way or another don’t do it as gracefully as this one. It’s cool to express and defend your own interior space without getting all hostile about it; this song makes it seem easy. I also like the way it feels as if it’s pulling itself along with its own momentum instead of being pushed forward heavily with the kick drum.

Tomorrow Never Knows

The first line kinda says it all, really. Again, it’s like he’s describing a solid internal state you can maintain without doing battle with the outside world. Sometimes the most amazing thing to me about Lennon is that he kept a positive identity despite such a cracked upbringing and crazy fame.


Cold Turkey and Jealous Guy

Being this honest can be risky, which, of course, is an excellent idea. It’ll either be sappy or brave. Or both. He chanced it and won. Other people have to write this way all the time. Lennon had access to all floors. Didn’t he also write:

I Am the Walrus

It’s dark, complicated, funny, and popular; it rocks; and it contains the phrase “goo goo g’joob.” Lyrics all over the place. I like songs like this because they activate my imagination. Coherence is fine and all, but it’s not the measure of interesting lyrics. Sonically, this song seems to be coming from a person who just busted out of incarceration somewhere.

Across the Universe

This song is fluid and musical in a way that, to me, overarches all the cultural and political commentary that surrounds his life. A really cool song can sometimes make a dream and reality trade places, maybe for the better.
Elliott Smith: SPIN (Jan 2001)




Five Beatles Cover Version by Elliott Smith


Friday, 5 June 2020

Ticket 72 Playlist: Embrace Your Mistakes


In order to better understand the influence of ideas on and by the Beatles songs are laid out in chronological order. Songs known to have an influence on the Beatles are in italics.

This page is a work in progress. Errors? Typos? Suggestions? Did I miss an example? Leave a comment below!

For more on this songwriting tip go here

1960 Mack the Knife (Ella In Berlin) - Ella Fitzgerald (1:55, 2:50, 3:44, 4:00) Ella forgets the lyrics and freestyles new verses, (3:16) Ella does an impression of Louis Armstrong.
1963 I Saw Her Standing There – The Beatles (0:00) Audible count-in.
1963 Twist And Shout – The Beatles (2:27) Cheer at the end.
1963 Louie Louie – The Kingsmen (0:53) Drummer swears. (1:56) Vocals enter early. Many later cover versions deliberately emulate this mistake.
1963 Fingertips - Part 2 - Stevie Wonder (2:22) bassist Joe Swift can be heard asking "What key?" (referenced in Shadows In The Rain – Sting (0:00)
1965 Bob Dylan's 115th Dream – Bob Dylan (0:00) False start grafted onto the beginning of the best take.
1965 My Generation – The Who (0:05, 0:16, 0:30, 0:36, 0:41, 0:45, 1:20, 1:25, 1:58, 2:04) Stuttering.
1966 Taxman – The Beatles(0:00) Two audible count-ins, coughing, tape noise.
1966 I Saw Her Again – The Mamas And The Papas (2:42) Vocals enter early.
1966 Here Today – The Beach Boys (1:51) Conversation audible under the solo.
1967 A Day In The Life - The Beatles (1:43/3:50) Mal’s 'bar count' still audible
1968 Helter Skelter - The Beatles (4:24) Ringo’s shout at the end
1968 Happiness Is A Warm Gun - The Beatles (0:57) John’s ‘down’ remains from an earlier take
1968 Revolution 1 – The Beatles (0:00) Conversation and audible count-in. (3:23) Extra beat caused by bad tape edit.
1968 Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da – The Beatles (2:33) Paul gets the lyrics wrong.
1968 Hey Jude  – The Beatles (2:58) John swears.
1969 Her Majesty - The Beatles - entire song was cut from the album and ended up at the master tape by mistake
1970 The Beehive State - Harry Nilsson (0:54) Distorted sound from headphone bleed
1970 So Long Dad - Harry Nilsson (1:56) Instructions to engineer
1970 Big Yellow Taxi - Joni Mitchell (2:10) Joni laughs after switching from soprano to bass.
1971 Stairway To Heaven - Led Zeppelin (1:32) Vocals come in four bars early on second verse.
1971 Andy Warhol – David Bowie (0:10) Bowie correcting engineer Ken Scott's pronunciation of title.
1973 Let Me Roll It - Paul McCartney and Wings (4:22) Extra beat caused by bad tape edit.
1973 The Jean Genie - David Bowie (0:37) bass/guitar start chorus a bar early. Bowie says "get back on it" (?).
1978 Roxanne – The Police (0:03) Sting sits on piano in vocal booth and laughs.
1978 Have Thine Own Way Lord (Personal File version) – Johnny Cash (0:37) Restarts after playing in the wrong key.
1985 You're Only Human (Second Wind) - Billy Joel (3:19) Billy stutters and laughs.
1985 Paisley Park - Prince (2:44) singing start of the verse ‘who’ too early
1989 Flying In a Blue Dream – Joe Satriani (0:02) Recording picks up ghostly radio interference.
1991 Polly – Nirvana (1:55) Vocals enter early.
1994 The Man Who Sold The World (MTV Unplugged) - Nirvana (2:48) Lead guitar bum note.
1997 Little Wonder - David Bowie (0:39) Bowie says “I'm getting it”. (3:09, 3:22) Bass soundcheck used as samples for breakdown.
1997 Good Riddance (Time Of Your Life) – Green Day (0:00) False start and swearing.
2001 I Do – Paul McCartney (0:46) caught his breath, fluffed vocal delivery
2002 Beautiful - Christina Aguilera (3:46) Deleted drum track audible through headphone bleed.
2005 Fine Line – Paul McCartney (0:00) warm up noises, count in (0:46) incorrect bass note.
2005 You're Beautiful - James Blunt (0:23) Vocals enter early.
2006 You're Pitiful - "Weird Al" Yankovic (0:12) Not a mistake but a spoof of the false start in James Blunt's song.
2011 Level With Yourself - David Bazan (0:53) David coughs and says “nope”.
2014 Air Conditioning – Sleaford Mods (1:00) Bass mistake.
2019 Deleted Scene (Attempted Bravery) – Matt Blick (0:08) Matt sings wrong lyrics, (0:35) Car horn outside studio.
2019 The River of Suffering – Matt Blick (3:09) Police siren outside studio.


Thanks to ‪Rob Stevens, Jonathan Nelson, ‪Andy Getch, ‪Martin Quibell, ‪Nancy Rost, ‪Rod Downburst Johnson for suggesting examples.



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Saturday, 30 May 2020

Ticket 77: Repeat The Final Line



You can signal that this really is the end of your song and tie things up with a pretty bow by repeating the end of the chorus. This works best by singing the final line twice or three times.

Double Final Line

All I've Got To Do
When I Get Home
Think For Yourself
Yes It Is

Triple Final Line

Nowhere Man
One After 909
Please Please Me
Your Mother Should Know

If your final line ends on the tonic/root chord (I) - which it almost certainly will - you can combine this ticket with Aeolian Cadence (Ticket 10) by ending the penultimate line on the six minor (vi) instead of the root chord (I). Octopus's Garden is a great example of this (2:30)

In an octopus's garden with you (F G Am)
In an octopus's garden with you (F G Am)
In an octopus's garden with you (F G C)

She Loves You finishes on the I but then moves to the vi to set up further repeats (1:47)

With a love like that you know you should be glad (Cm D G Em)

The vi chord isn't the only substitute for the I chord when you want to delay the end and set up for a repeat of the last line. The iv, IV, bVI are just a few that would work (The False Picardy - Ticket 46).

I Want To Hold Your Hand is another great example (2:08), delaying the root first with the III (B7) then IV (C) before finally ending on the I (G)

I Want To Hold Your Hand (C D G Em)
I Want To Hold Your Hand (C D B7)
I Want To Hold Your Hand (C D C G)

I Will delays with the bVI before an altered version of the title line and a wordless coda (1:22).

Your Mother Should Know uses the VI to delay the end (twice) and I Saw Her Standing There has two lines ending on the I chord before delaying with the IV on the final line (2:30)

Since I saw her standing there (E B7 E)
Since I saw her standing there (E B7 E)
Since I saw her standing there (E B7 A E)

Sometimes the ending is better set up by repeating a lyric just before the end. I'm Happy Just To Dance With You delays with the vi chord but changes the penultimate line of lyric to better set up the original final line (1:37)

I've discovered I'm in love with you (A Baug C#m F#m G#)
Cos I'm happy just to dance with you (A Baug C#m F#m G#)

before five more “oh”s round the whole thing off. Adding a musical or lyrical phrase after the 'last line' like this can be just the ticket. It's Only Love adds a final “loving you...” (1:36) after the repeats (1:28) and P.S. I Love You adds a final, higher “I love you...” over it's repeated chord progression (1:49).

You can find more examples in the Ticket 77 Playlist.

Ticket 77 Playlist: Repeat The Final Line



In order to better understand the influence of ideas on and by the Beatles songs are laid out in chronological order.

This page is a work in progress. Errors? Typos? Suggestions? Did I miss an example? Leave a comment below!

For more on this songwriting tip go here

1962 P.S. I Love You - The Beatles (1:49)
1963 Please Please Me - The Beatles (1:39)
1963 Ask Me Why - The Beatles (2:10)
1963 I Saw Her Standing There - The Beatles (2:30)
1963 She Loves You - The Beatles (1:47)
1963 All I've Got To Do - The Beatles (1:39)
1963 I Want To Hold Your Hand - The Beatles (2:08)
1964 When I Get Home - The Beatles (1:58)
1964 I'm Happy Just To Dance With You - The Beatles (1:37)
1964 What You're Doing - The Beatles (1:58)
1965 Yes It Is - The Beatles (2:26)
1965 It's Only Love - The Beatles (1:28)
1965 Nowhere Man - The Beatles (2:14)
1965 Think For Yourself - The Beatles (2:01)
1967 Your Mother Should Know - The Beatles (1:58)
1968 I Will - The Beatles (1:22)
1969 One After 909 - The Beatles (2:03)
1969 The Ballad of John and Yoko - The Beatles (2:31)
1969 Octopus's Garden - The Beatles (2:30)
1986 Earn Enough For Us – XTC (2:36)
1998 Acquiesce - Oasis (3:08)
2006 No Buses – Arctic Monkeys (2:57)

Thanks to Chris Henson, Jamie Osbourne and Tom Slatter for help with examples.

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Tuesday, 19 May 2020

Ticket 4 Playlist: Recycle Your Os

  • In order to better understand the influence of ideas on and by the Beatles songs are laid out in chronological order.
  • Songs written or performed by the Beatles are in bold.
  • Songs covered by the Beatles, or to known to have had an influence on them, are in italics.
This page is continually being revised. Errors? Typos? Suggestions? Did I miss an example? Leave a comment below!

Read a detailed explanation of this ticket here - Plant A Chorus: Grow An Intro.

1962 P.S. I Love You - The Beatles - intro
1963 All My Loving – The Beatles - outro
1963 From Me To You - The Beatles - outro
1963 Please Please Me - The Beatles - intro
1963 She Loves You - The Beatles - intro/outro
1964 Help - The Beatles - intro
1964 Can’t Buy Me Love - The Beatles - intro/outro
1964 I'm A Loser - The Beatles - intro
1966 Dr Robert - The Beatles - outro
1968 Julia - The Beatles - intro
1968 Martha My Dear - The Beatles - solo
1968 Piggies - The Beatles - intro/outro/solo
1968 Blackbird – The Beatles - links
1969 The Long And Winding Road - The Beatles - outro
1969 Here Comes The Sun - The Beatles - outro
1977 The Modern World - The Jam - intro (0:00) from chorus (2:05)
1986 You Give Love A Bad Name - Bon Jovi - intro
1991 Smells Like Teen Spirit - Nirvana - solo
2001 One Day - Nik Kershaw - bridge
2009 Secret Door - Arctic Monkeys - intro
2012 I Knew You Were Trouble - Taylor Swift - outro
2012 Let Her Go – Passenger - intro (0:00) from chorus
2013 Why'd You Only Call Me When You're High? – Arctic Monkeys – outro (2:18) from chorus
2017 Jekyll - Plastic Inevitables - intro/outro



Thanks to Curtis Pea for examples

See the full list of songwriting tips here - Tickets To Write

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